Mahesh Enterprises
Mahesh Enterprises
Masjid Bandar, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Factsheet

Basic Information
IndiaMART TrustSeal
Nature of Business
Manufacturer
Total Number of Employees
11 to 25 People
Year of Establishment
1992
Legal Status of Firm
Sole Proprietorship (Individual)
Annual Turnover
Rs. 50 Lakh - 1 Crore
GST No.
27AFEPM7719R1ZM

ASTM A193

Originally approved in 1936, this specification is heavily utilized in petroleum and chemical construction applications.  The ASTM standard covers alloy steel and stainless steel bolting materials for high temperature service. This specification includes fasteners intended for use in pressure vessels, valves, flanges and fittings.

Although, this material is often available in national coarse (UNC) thread pitches, if being used in traditional applications, threads are specified 8 threads per inch (tpi) for diameters above one inch. Below is a basic summary of a few of the common grades. ASTM A193 covers a number of other standard specifications not covered in this description including B5, B6 and B16.

Grade:

B7 Alloy steel, AISI 4140/4142 quenched and tempered
B8 Class 1 Stainless steel, AISI 304, carbide solution treated.
B8M Class 1 Stainless steel, AISI 316, carbide solution treated.
B8 Class 2 Stainless steel, AISI 304, carbide solution treated, strain hardened
B8M Class 2 Stainless steel, AISI 316, carbide solution treated, strain hardened


ASTM A194

The ASTM A194 specification covers carbon, alloy and stainless steel nuts intended for use in high-pressure and/or high-temperature service. Unless otherwise specified, the American National Standard Heavy Hex Series (ANSI B 18.2.2) shall be used. Nuts up to and including 1 inch nominal size shall be UNC Series Class  2B fit. Nuts over 1 inch nominal size shall be either UNC Series Class 2B fit or 8 UN Series Class 2B fit. High strength ASTM A194 grade 2H nuts are common in the marketplace and are often substituted for ASTM A563 grade DH nuts due to the limited availability of DH nuts in certain diameters and finishes.

Grade:

2 Carbon steel heavy hex nuts
2H Quenched & tempered carbon steel heavy hex nuts
2HM Quenched & tempered carbon steel heavy hex nuts
4 Quenched & tempered carbon-molybdenum heavy hex nuts
7 Quenched & tempered alloy steel heavy hex nuts
7M Quenched & tempered alloy steel heavy hex nuts
8 Stainless AISI 304 heavy hex nuts
8M Stainless AISI 316 heavy hex nuts
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ASTM A307

The ASTM A307 specification covers carbon steel bolts and studs ranging from 1/4” through 4” diameter. This is your everyday, run of the mill bolt specification often manufactured using A36 round bar. There are three grades A, B, and C* which denote tensile strength, configuration, and application. Refer to the mechanical properties chart for the subtle strength differences within each grade.

Grade:

A Headed bolts, threaded rods and bent bolts intended for general applications.
B Heavy hex bolts and studs intended for flanged joints in piping systems with cast iron flanges.
C* Non-headed anchor bolts, either bent or straight, intended for structural anchorage purposes. The end of a grade C anchor bolt intended to project from the concrete will be painted green for identification purposes. Permanent marking is a supplemental requirement. *As of August 2007, grade C has been replaced by specification F1554 grade 36. We will continue to supply grade C, if required by the project.

Mechanical Properties:

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Grade Tensile, ksi Yield, min, ksi Elong %, min
A 60 min -- 18
B 60 - 100 -- 18
C* 58 - 80 36 23

Recommended Nuts and Washer:

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Nuts Washers

A307 Grades A & C* A307 Grade B

1/4 - 1-1/2 1-5/8 - 4 01/04/04
A563A Hex A563A Heavy Hex A563A Heavy Hex F844

ASTM A320

Originally approved in 1948, the ASTM A320 specification covers alloy steel and stainless steel bolting materials for low temperature service. This standard covers rolled, forged, or strain hardened bars, bolts, screws, studs, and stud bolts used for pressure vessels, valves, flanges, and fittings.

Like the ASTM A193 specification, unless otherwise specified, the 8UN thread series is specified on fastener larger than 1” in diameter. Below is a basic summary of a few of the common grades within the ASTM A320 specification. A number of other less common grades of ASTM A320 exist, but not covered in the description below.

Grade:
L7 Alloy steel AISI 4140/4142 Quenched and tempered
L43 Alloy steel AISI 4340 Quenched and tempered
B8 Class 1 Stainless steel AISI 304, carbide solution treated
B8M Class 1 Stainless steel AISI 316, carbide solution treated
B8 Class 2 Stainless steel AISI 304, carbide solution treated, strain hardened
B8M Class 2 Stainless steel AISI 316, carbide solution treated, strain hardened



ASTM A325

The ASTM A325 specification covers high strength heavy hex structural bolts from ½” diameter through 1-1/2” diameter. These bolts are intended for use in structural connections and therefore have shorter thread lengths than standard hex bolts. Refer to the Structural Bolts page of our site for thread lengths and other related dimensions.

This specification is applicable to heavy hex structural bolts only. For bolts of other configurations and thread lengths with similar mechanical properties, see Specification A 449. Bolts for general applications, including anchor bolts, are covered by Specification A 449. Also refer to Specification A 449 for quenched and tempered steel bolts and studs with diameters greater than 1-1/2" but with similar mechanical properties.

Type:

TYPE 1 Medium carbon, carbon boron, or medium carbon alloy steel.
 TYPE 2 Withdrawn November 1991
 TYPE 3 Weathering steel
T Fully threaded A325. (Restricted to 4 times the diameter in length)
M Metric A325



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ASTM A354

The ASTM A354 specification covers the chemical and mechanical requirements of quenched and tempered alloy steel bolts, studs, and other externally threaded fasteners 4" and under in diameter. Two strength levels, grade BC and grade BD, are summarized in the chart below. This specification is unrestricted in its configuration and can be a headed bolt, bent bolt, or threaded rod. Grade:

  A354 BD

A354 grade BD bolts are higher in strength than A354 grade BC and equal in strength to ASTM A490 bolts. Unlike ASTM A490 however, the A354 BD specification is unrestricted in its configuration. Since A490 bolts are heavy hex structural bolts and do not exceed 1-1/2" diameter, specification A354 BD should be considered for anchor bolts, threaded rods, other styles of headed bolts, and bolts larger than 1-1/2" diameter where similar mechanical properties are desired. A354 grade BD does not require a magnetic particle test as is required by the A490 specification.

Research conducted on bolts of similar material and manufacture indicates that hydrogen-stress cracking or stress cracking corrosion may occur on hot-dip galvanized Grade BD bolts.  For more information about this subject, please see our FAQ that addresses galvanizing of high strength bolts.

  A354 BC Lower in strength than grade BD.

Mechanical Propertie:

Grade Size Tensile, ksi, min Yield, ksi, min Elong %, min RA %, min
BC 1/4 - 2-1/2 125 109 16 50
2-5/8 - 4 115 99 16 45
BD 1/4 - 2-1/2 150 130 14 40
2-5/8 - 4 140 115 14 40

Recommended Nuts and Washer:
Nuts Washers
Grade BC Grade BD
Plain Galvanized Plain
A563C Heavy Hex A563DH Heavy Hex A563DH Heavy Hex F436
* Nuts of other grades load stresses greater than the specified grade are suitable.  Follow the link for an ASTM A563 Nut Compatibility Chart.

ASTM A449

ASTM A449 covers headed bolts, rods, and anchor bolts in diameters ranging from 1/4" through 3" inclusive. It is a medium strength bolt manufactured from a medium carbon or alloy steel that develops its mechanical values through a heat treating process. It is intended for general engineering applications.

ASTM A449 is virtually identical in chemistry and strength to ASTM A325 and SAE J429 grade 5. However, A449 is more flexible in the sense that it covers a larger diameter range and is not restricted by a specific configuration.

Types:

TYPE 1 Plain carbon steel, carbon boron steel, alloy steel, or alloy boron steel.
TYPE 2 Withdrawn 2003
TYPE 3 Weathering steel

Mechanical Properties:
Size Tensile, ksi Yield, ksi Elong. %, min RA %, min
1/4 - 1 120 min 92 min 14 35
1-1/8 - 1-1/2 105 min 81 min 14 35
1-5/8 - 3 90 min 58 min 14 35

Recommended Nuts And Washers:


Nuts Washers
Plain Galvanized
1/4 - 1-1/2 1-5/8 - 3 1/4 - 3
A563B Hex A563A Heavy Hex A563DH Heavy Hex F436
Note: Nuts of other grades having proof load stresses greater than the specified grade are suitable. The ASTM A563 Nut Compatibility Chart has a complete list of specifications.

ASTM A490

The ASTM A490 specification covers quenched and tempered, alloy steel, heavy hex structural bolts from ½” diameter through 1½” diameter with a minimum 150 ksi tensile. These bolts are intended for use in structural connections and therefore have shorter thread lengths than standard hex bolts. Refer to the Structural Bolts page of our site for thread lengths and other related dimensions.

A490 bolts are similar in application and dimensions to A325 heavy hex structural bolts but are made from an alloy steel rather than a medium carbon steel, resulting in a higher strength fastener. The A490 specification is applicable to heavy hex structural bolts only. For bolts with different thread lengths than specified for structural bolts but with similar mechanical properties, see Specification A354 grade BD.

ASTM A490 bolts shall not be coated by hot-dip galvanizing, mechanical deposition, or electroplating with zinc or other metallic coatings due to the potential risk of hydrogen embrittlement. Additional testing in the form of Magnetic Particle Inspection for Longitudinal Discontinuities and Transverse Cracks is a requirement of the A490 specification.

Type:

 TYPE 1 Medium carbon and alloy steel.
 TYPE 2 Withdrawn in 2002.
 TYPE 3 Weathering steel.
   
M Metric A490.

Connection Types:

 SC Slip critical connection.
 N Bearing type connection with threads included in the shear plane.
 X Bearing type connection with threads excluded from the shear plane.

Mechanical Properties:
Size Tensile, ksi Yield, ksi Elong. %, min RA %, min
1/2 - 1-1/2 150-173 130 14 40
Recommended Nuts and Washers
Nuts Washers
Type 1 Type 3 Type 1 Type 3
A563DH A563DH3 F436-1 F436-3

Note:
Nuts conforming to A194 Grade 2H are a suitable substitute for use with A490 heavy hex structural bolts. Follow the link for an ASTM A563 Nut Compatibility Chart. The bolts shall not be coated by hot-dip zinc coating, mechanical deposition, or electroplating with zinc or other metallic coatings due to the potential for hydrogen embitterment. Read more about issues with galvanizing ASTM A490. Each sample representative of the lot shall be magnetic particle inspected for longitudinal discontinuities and transverse cracks.
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ASTM A563

The ASTM A563 specification covers the chemical and mechanical requirements for carbon and alloy steel nuts used on bolts, studs, and externally threaded fasteners. The charts below address over tapping allowances for hot-dip galvanized nuts, grade marking requirements, and mechanical requirements. For information on suitable nuts for various grades of bolts, visit the Nut Compatibility Chart.

According the A563 specification, "The requirements for any grade of nut may, at the supplier's option, and with notice to the purchaser, be fulfilled by furnishing nuts of one of the stronger grades specified herein unless such a substitution is barred in the inquiry and purchase order". This is important because some nut grades are not readily available in certain sizes and finishes. Additionally, the specification allows for the substitution of ASTM A194 grade 2H nuts in lieu of A563 grade DH nuts due to the lack of availability of grade DH nuts in nominal sizes ¾" and larger.

Hot-dip galvanized nuts must be tapped oversize to allow for the added thickness of the zinc on the threads of the externally threaded fastener. These allowances are addressed in the chart below and a more detailed explanation of this issue can be found in the Frequently Asked Questions section of this site. Various nut styles exist and to some degree are determined by their grade. These styles include hex, heavy hex, square, jam, coupling and sleeve.

Scope:

  • Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts.
Grade:
A Low carbon steel, hex or heavy hex
B Low carbon steel, hex or heavy hex
C Carbon steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
D Carbon steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
DH Carbon steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
C3 Weathering steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
DH3 Weathering steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex

Mechanical Properties:
Grade Style Size, in. Proof Load, ksi Hardness, HBN
Black Galvanized
A Hex 1/4 - 1-1/2 90 68 116 - 302
Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 100 75 116 - 302
B Heavy Hex 1/4 - 1 133 100 121 - 302
Heavy Hex 1-1/8 - 1-1/2 116 87 121 - 302
C / C3 Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 144 144 143 - 352
D Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 150 150 248 - 352
DH / DH3 Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 175 150 248 - 352
For UNC, 8UN, 6UN and Coarse Pitch Threads

ASTM F1554

The ASTM F1554 specification was introduced in 1994 and covers anchor bolts designed to anchor structural supports to concrete foundations. F1554 anchor bolts can take the form of either headed bolts, straight rods, or bent anchor bolts. The three grades 36, 55 and 105 designate the minimum yield strength (ksi) of the anchor bolt.

The bolts can be either cut or roll threaded and a weldable grade 55 can be substituted for grade 36 at the supplier’s option. Color coding on the end 36 blue, 55 yellow, and 105 red helps facilitate easy identification in the field. Permanent manufacturer and grade marking is allowed under the S2 supplementary requirements.

Applications for F1554 anchor bolts include columns in structural steel framed buildings, traffic signal and street lighting poles, and overhead highway sign structures to name just a few.

ASTM F2329

ASTM F2329 covers the requirements for hot-dip zinc coating applied to carbon steel and alloy steel bolts, screws, washers, nuts and special threaded fasteners applied by the hot-dip coating process.  This specification was developed in 2005, but is not yet widely used since many of the ASTM specification covering threaded fasteners do not reference it.  As soon as these specifications are updated to reference the ASTM F2329 specification, it will likely become much more prevalent than ASTM A153 which is the specification that is currently used to cover hot-dip galvanizing of bolts.  ASTM A123 is a related hot-dip galvanizing specification covering iron and steel products made from rolled pressed and forged shapes, castings, plates, bars and strips.